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BT 70.016 709.153 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET
BT 142.724 709.153 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Up Close)] TJ ET
BT 192.068 709.153 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET
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BT 70.016 653.949 Td /F3 24.0 Tf [(Episode 33: Mathematics of Biology)] TJ ET
BT 70.016 599.486 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Mathematics of Biology)] TJ ET
BT 70.016 568.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(VOICEOVER )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 553.777 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Welcome to Melbourne University Up Close, a fortnightly podcast of research, )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 539.125 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personalities, and cultural offerings of the University of Melbourne, Australia. Up )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 524.473 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Close is available on the web at upclose.unimelb.edu.au. That?s upclose.u-n-i-m-e-l-)] TJ ET
BT 70.016 509.821 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(b.edu.au.)] TJ ET
BT 70.016 480.769 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SHANE HUNTINGTON )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 466.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hello and welcome to Up Close, coming to you from Melbourne University, )] TJ ET
BT 468.812 466.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Australia. )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 451.465 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I?m Dr Shane Huntington and today?s topic is biological mathematics. Mathematics )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 436.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is potentially the most cross-disciplinary research field that exists ? whether we are )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 422.161 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealing with architecture, biology, economics or agriculture, mathematics has an )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 407.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptional role to play. As the complexity of our technological world increases )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 392.857 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mathematics is finding new and critical areas of application. A truly cross-disciplinary )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 378.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientist is Professor Kerry Landman, from the Department of Mathematics and )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 363.553 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Statistics in the Faculty of Science, University of Melbourne, Australia. It is my )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 348.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleasure to welcome Kerry to Up Close today. )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 319.849 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(KERRY LANDMAN )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 305.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thank you, Shane. )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 276.145 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SHANE HUNTINGTON )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 261.493 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When you talk about mathematics, I guess, people have an image of what a )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 246.841 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mathematician does, and I guess that these days, may be predominantly coming )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 232.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from films like A Beautiful Mind or Numbers, these types of programs. But day to )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 217.537 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(day, what is involved in a mathematician?s job? )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 188.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(KERRY LANDMAN )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 173.833 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The type of mathematics you do means that you interact with different sorts of )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 159.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people, or you might interact with a smaller group of people ? only people who do the )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 144.529 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sort of mathematics that you do. I do applied mathematics. And I do mathematical )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 129.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modeling, so a lot of the problems I work on, are problems which are of interest to )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 115.225 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people in different disciplines. But if you are a pure mathematician and are interested )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 100.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in say, the four colour map, often times they are old problems which are unsolved )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 85.921 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and they?re challenges to pure mathematicians.)] TJ ET
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BT 70.016 760.153 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SHANE HUNTINGTON )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 745.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I see you laughing, are these problems that applied mathematicians deem not )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 730.849 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary to resolve at this point or ? ?)] TJ ET
BT 70.016 701.797 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(KERRY LANDMAN )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 687.145 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No, I think it takes a different sort of mind. And a different sort of motivation to do )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 672.493 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those sort of problems. They?re not the sort of problems that I have been interested )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 657.841 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in. I like interacting with people from other fields and I like working on questions that )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 643.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they want to answer. So, I like to collaborate and I like my work to be used in )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 628.537 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different fields. I am not challenged by pure mathematics, just pure questions which )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 613.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only relate to mathematics. I am stimulated by how mathematics can be used in the )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 599.233 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider community.)] TJ ET
BT 70.016 570.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SHANE HUNTINGTON )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 555.529 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And presumably, there are a certain range of problems from which similar )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 540.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mathematics or similar sets of equations are used for quite a large range of )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 526.225 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems, is that true in your experience? )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 497.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(KERRY LANDMAN )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 482.521 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yeah, that is certainly my experience, because I work mostly with transport of )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 467.869 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material. So, in the engineering context in which I worked for many years, it would be )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 453.217 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like heat transfer or how do solid particles in a suspension move? All of those are )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 438.565 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transport of material, and you use what are called ?conservation equations?. You )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 423.913 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describe conservation of mass, if you like, or force balance, so it is essentially )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 409.261 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Newton?s law, force is mass times acceleration. And those things can be transferred )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 394.609 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a wide variety of contexts and now I am applying them to biological areas. )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 365.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SHANE HUNTINGTON )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 350.905 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kerry, let?s get, to the, I guess, the topic of today, which is biological mathematics, )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 336.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or mathematical biology, or bio-maths, there is a few ways to say it, how are )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 321.601 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mathematicians used in biology? Where does the link come from? )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 292.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(KERRY LANDMAN )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 277.897 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Well, in a variety of ways. I was going to talk about the non-statistical areas which )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 263.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are sort of the areas which people know about or think that mathematics is used )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 248.593 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when you analyse data. So, the large area that I?ve been involved with, started )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 233.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about 30 years ago, was trying to understand for example, cancer growth. So, some )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 219.289 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the early models where mathematics was used, is trying to understand the )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 204.637 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure of a cancer. So, for example, you start off with a few cancerous cells, and )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 189.985 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say they are a sphere, all of those cells divide, and the whole thing starts to grow, but )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 175.333 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after a certain amount of time, it gets to a stage where there are cells on the inside )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 160.681 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which are no longer dividing, they?re alive but they don?t all divide, and the ones on )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 146.029 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rim are still dividing. And so the whole thing still continues to grow. But at a )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 131.377 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain stage you find that the inner core actually dies. There is still a ring of )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 116.725 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quiescent cells ? they?re alive but not proliferating ? and the final ring is a )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 102.073 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proliferative ring of cells, but the whole sphere has come to a steady state. And so, )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 87.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for example, the cancer researchers were interested, ?well, why is this happening?? )] TJ ET
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BT 70.016 760.153 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And this started a whole group of mathematicians working on these sorts of )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 745.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems because ? it is still a very current project in applied maths ? so, trying to )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 730.849 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand, essentially, diffusion or nutrient limited, so, the cells, in order to divide, )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 716.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they need oxygen or nutrients. And the nutrients have to diffuse into this sphere and )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 701.545 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if it grows too large, the nutrient level at the centre, is obviously the lowest, and it )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 686.893 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(falls below a certain level and it means that the cells will respond differently ? no )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 672.241 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longer proliferate or die, depending on the level. So, this is an example of one area )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 657.589 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where mathematicians were very helpful.)] TJ ET
BT 70.016 628.537 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SHANE HUNTINGTON )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 613.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So, I guess in that sense you would need to understand the rate at which various )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 599.233 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chemicals diffuse, which would depend on the chemicals and the environment, you )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 584.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have to understand how the cells were adapting and dealing with that on an )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 569.929 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual cell basis. It sounds like a very complex equation.)] TJ ET
BT 70.016 540.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(KERRY LANDMAN )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 526.225 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are different levels of working things. Depending on the question that you?re )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 511.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answering, sometimes you can model things as an average or as a population level, )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 496.921 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so you?re looking at groups of cells and how they behave, rather than looking at )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 482.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what is actually happening with each individual cell. You?ve raised an interesting )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 467.617 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point. At what scale are you looking at biological events? Are you looking at a scale )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 452.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of millimeters, like the size of a tumor, or a cell, or inside a cell which is the size of a )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 438.313 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(micron, 10 to the minus six meters. So, you would see different sorts of models or )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 423.661 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(you would be asking different sorts of questions, and you would respond with )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 409.009 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modelling in different sorts of scales. )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 379.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SHANE HUNTINGTON )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 365.305 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Now this brings us to the heart of the work you do, there is a very strong interaction, )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 350.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no doubt, between yourselves and the biological community. You guys speak quite )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 336.001 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different languages. How do you manage that process? )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 306.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(KERRY LANDMAN )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 292.297 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It takes a long time to learn to speak a similar language. The hardest thing in any of )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 277.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this collaboration is really framing the question that wants to be answered. And often )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 262.993 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times with collaborations, you meet the person, you have discussions, it might take )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 248.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one or two years before you work out what you want to work on. And in some ways, )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 233.689 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most exiting part of the project, is trying to frame the questions correctly. One of )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 219.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(my current collaborators, he gave a seminar in our department and I was extremely )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 204.385 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in his problem, and we talked about it for a year and a half or two years )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 189.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until we started to work out what did he really want. Because when the biologists talk )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 175.081 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about these problems, they talk about all the detail, and not necessarily is all the )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 160.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail necessary to understand what is actually happening. So, trying to work out )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 145.777 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what levels you want to answer the questions is the part of the mathematician. )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 116.725 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SHANE HUNTINGTON )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 102.073 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I guess, you have a scenario, where particularly what is important to you in your field )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 87.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not necessarily important to the biologist, you have different driving forces and you )] TJ ET
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BT 70.016 760.153 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have to align your goals in such a way that you somehow come out with something )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 745.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistent. )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 716.449 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(KERRY LANDMAN )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 701.797 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Very much so. Often we would start a project and we would have the question in )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 687.145 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind that we are interested in and we?d answer that question or come up with new )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 672.493 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hypotheses for various diseases or abnormalities or come up with ideas for )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 657.841 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiments. But at the same time they?re interesting mathematical questions, and )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 643.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so we would also study the mathematical questions and do the analysis, but they )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 628.537 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wouldn?t be of interest to the biologists. So, a lot of the modelling does raise some )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 613.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting theoretical questions for us as mathematicians because we are obviously )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 599.233 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in it at that level as well. )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 570.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SHANE HUNTINGTON )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 555.529 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And how enabling is the current computer technology, is this the sort of thing you )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 540.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(couldn?t do 20 years ago, this sort of modeling, or is it quite robust and independent )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 526.225 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the computer speeds we have access to? )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 497.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(KERRY LANDMAN )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 482.521 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The work that is currently being done, there is a lot of work now trying to match, )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 467.869 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really, at the same level where the experiments are at. So there is a lot of )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 453.217 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experimental work now which is tracking individual cells, so if you have a large )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 438.565 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population of cells and want to know how every cell is moving or how they divide, )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 423.913 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then you have to do large computations. And those things are much easier now on )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 409.261 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(larger computers.)] TJ ET
BT 70.016 380.209 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SHANE HUNTINGTON )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 365.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(You?re listening to Melbourne University Up Close. I?m Dr Shane Huntington and )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 350.905 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we?re speaking with Prof Kerry Landman about biological mathematics. Now the last )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 336.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue that I want to mention, that you have been working on, which is a very serious )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 321.601 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one, is in the area of tissue engineering what is the role of mathematics there? )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 292.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(KERRY LANDMAN)] TJ ET
BT 70.016 277.897 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Well, in tissue engineering, the idea is to be able to make a new organ or to make a )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 263.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tissue which you can implant in an organ or to have a tissue re-grow in the human )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 248.593 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body so that there is no rejection. So, I think one of the things that mathematicians )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 233.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will be useful for, is to try and help design the best way to seed cells into a scaffold. )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 219.289 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So, if you seed them a certain way, you want to know how their numbers will )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 204.637 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increase because you don?t put the whole tissue there, you put a little piece of tissue )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 189.985 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and you want it to grow and fill this whole scaffold. So the idea would be, how can )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 175.333 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(you optimise, for example, the seeding, of those scaffolds, or how do you design a )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 160.681 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better scaffold in order to maximise the amount of tissue you have after a certain )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 146.029 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period of time. The geometry of the problem is very complex. So, at this stage the )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 131.377 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modelling is on, you have to abstract it to be simpler.)] TJ ET
BT 70.016 102.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SHANE HUNTINGTON )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 87.673 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Right. And there is some very interesting work all over the world, happening in this )] TJ ET
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BT 70.016 760.153 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(field at the moment. )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 731.101 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(KERRY LANDMAN)] TJ ET
BT 70.016 716.449 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Very much so. )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 687.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SHANE HUNTINGTON )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 672.745 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is a hot topic. )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 643.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(KERRY LANDMAN)] TJ ET
BT 70.016 629.041 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Very hot topic. And a lot of people are doing things in vitro, in the lab, on simpler )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 614.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surfaces because in order to something in a very complicated geometry of a scaffold )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 599.737 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in three dimensions you need to understand how cells can migrate, proliferate, even )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 585.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just on two dimension surfaces, so, a lot of the mathematics and the experiments at )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 570.433 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this stage are, ?how do you make sure that the cells stick or adhere to the surface )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 555.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and how can you predict how they are going to move?? )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 526.729 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SHANE HUNTINGTON )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 512.077 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Now, Kerry, I guess, what is next on the horizon in mathematics? What big )] TJ ET
BT 468.848 512.077 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 497.425 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are being asked at the moment worldwide in maths? I think of yourself as, sort of, the )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 482.773 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Point A to Point B woman, a lot of your work involves transition of objects from point )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 468.121 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one to point two, and so forth. What are the big, burning questions in maths )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 453.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worldwide? )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 424.417 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(KERRY LANDMAN)] TJ ET
BT 70.016 409.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Let me talk about mathematical biology for the moment. I think one of the major )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 395.113 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges in mathematical biology is going back to this scales issue, is trying to )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 380.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand how to integrate at the population level to the cell level, to the intra-cell )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 365.809 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level and how to model all those three levels. How do you integrate them? And how )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 351.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do you put the feedback between each of those levels? And those challenges in )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 336.505 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mathematical biology are very similar to challenges in other areas, like in granular )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 321.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(media. So, if you?re talking about granular media you have lots of particles, and )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 307.201 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again, the same idea is that you?re looking at a large group of particles, if you have a )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 292.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hopper with wheat or something or you?re looking at individual wheat grains, how do )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 277.897 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they interact together. And again, you have questions of scale. And I think that is one )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 263.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the major challenges. And similarly, trying to work with biologists, the techniques )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 248.593 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the biologists are now using are much more detailed than the ones they used )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 233.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before. They can look inside a cell and they understand information about genes and )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 219.289 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they can understand how to track individual cells with time, and what we would like to )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 204.637 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand is how can we take their data and understand what that is telling us and )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 189.985 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how do we build mathematical models around those sorts of things. )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 160.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SHANE HUNTINGTON)] TJ ET
BT 70.016 146.281 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And I guess a big part of that is, the fact that, in a sense that the biologists at the )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 131.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moment, are almost in a data overload mode and dealing with that data is something )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 116.977 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they need your optimisation to help them with. )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 87.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(KERRY LANDMAN)] TJ ET
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BT 70.016 760.153 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exactly right. They collect a lot of data, but you don?t know which data is going to )] TJ ET
BT 504.908 760.153 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tell )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 745.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(you anything. So even if you collect that data, how do you assimilate it all together )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 730.849 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and try and work out what it tells you about mechanisms. I think that is a major )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 716.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge for mathematicians and also for biologists. )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 687.145 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SHANE HUNTINGTON)] TJ ET
BT 70.016 672.493 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prof Kerry Landman, from the Department of Mathematics and Statistics, I )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 657.841 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(congratulate you on applying your maths in so many different areas and thank you )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 643.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for being our guest on Up Close today. )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 614.137 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(KERRY LANDMAN)] TJ ET
BT 70.016 599.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thank you, Shane, for inviting me. )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 570.433 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SHANE HUNTINGTON)] TJ ET
BT 70.016 555.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Melbourne University Up Close is brought to you by the Marketing and )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 541.129 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Communications Division in association with Asia Institute of the University of )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 526.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Melbourne, Australia. Our producers for this episode were Kelvin Param and Eric )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 511.825 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(van Bemmel. Audio recording by Craig McArthur. Theme music performed by Sergio )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 497.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ercole. Melbourne University Up Close is created by Eric van Bemmel and Kelvin )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 482.521 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Param. Relevant links, a full transcript and more info on this episode can be found on )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 467.869 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our website at upclose.unimelb.edu.au. We also invite you to leave your comments )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 453.217 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and feedback on this or any episode of Up Close, simply click on the ?add new )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 438.565 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comment? link at the bottom of the episode page. I?m Dr Shane Huntington and until )] TJ ET
BT 70.016 423.913 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(next time, goodbye.)] TJ ET
BT 70.016 385.261 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The University of Melbourne, 2008. All Rights Reserved.)] TJ ET
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BT 137.587 353.160 Td /F1 10.7 Tf [(http://www.upclose.unimelb.edu.au/episode/33-mathematics-biology)] TJ ET
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